The Persian wars were a series of wars that involved the Greeks and the Persians.
The war first started out with the Greeks in Ionia (a part of modern-day Turkey) being unhappy with the governor of Persia, and they rebelled against them. The two Greek cities of Athens and Eretria promised to help them with the rebellion, and with that, the rebels captured and burned the city of Sardis. King Darius was enraged and vowed revenge.
From 495-497, both sides were in a stalemate, until 494 when the Persians attacked Miletus. King Darius still wanted to expand his kingdom, so he punished the Greeks in the process of conquering them. He thought that the small Greek armies would be a pushover, however, he was mistaken. The army of Athens and Sparta joined together would be proven to be a very resistant army, and almost unstoppable. The first Persian invasion took place in 490, followed by another one in 492.
After 5 days of stalemate, the Persians then began loading their ships. The Greeks took this as an opportunity to attack the Persians with a quick, decisive blow. In battle, the Persians lost 6400 soldiers, opposed to Athens, who lost only 192.
The Athenians then went back to ensure the Persians weren’t attacking any of their other shores. The Persians had to fall back without a victory, but King Darius promised to come back with a bigger and stronger army. The Greeks could do nothing but wait for the attack and hope to repel it. This was the end of the Battle of Marathon.
After that, Darius started preparing his army for another invasion of Greece. Meanwhile, Darius also made an expedition to subdue the Egyptians who had also rebelled. He went one towards this journey but died during it. He was succeeded by his son, Xerxes.
Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt in 480, and then his attention collected towards Greece. The invasion required much planning and a coordinated attack. He recruited soldiers from 46 conquered nations to invade at the Hellespont. The invasion was made in 481 and the Persians marched on boats that were in the water.
In that time, Xerxes sent ambassadors to ask for support from Greek city-states, and only 70 out of the 700 refused to help.
Athens and Sparta were the strongest Allies who worked together. They repelled Persian attacks for two days but then were betrayed by a resident who showed Xerxes a special path.
In the end, the Greeks were able to repel all Persian invasions, and the Persians were forced to sign a peace treaty, which was embarrassing on their part.