Africa has been described as the most geographically diverse continent on Earth. Almost every climate is present, such as deserts, plains, jungles, forests, lakes, and mountains. The only climate that isn’t present is frozen tundra, however, due to the multiple climates otherwise, it has been described as very diverse.
The continent is infamous for the Nile River, the world’s largest river which runs through many old civilizations.
One of the most well-known African civilizations is Egypt. It was mostly ruled by Pharaohs throughout it’s existence, and as many civilizations in Africa, it was based near the Nile River.
Egypt was conquered by many during its existence. It was first conquered by the Persians, but they eventually regained their freedom for a short time. Then it was conquered by Rome in 31 BC and then was released near the fall of Rome in 476 AD. After the Roman Empire’s fall, Egypt was rebuilding, adopting Islam as their religion.
Nubia was another African civilization based around the Nile. It was directly beneath Egypt, and known for trading with Arabia and Mediterranean civilizations through iron working. They remained mostly independent after Rome conquered Egypt, but eventually started losing power in 400 AD.
Ethiopia was another African civilization, characterized by having strong and rich kings throughout it’s existence. It started off as a civilization known as Axum, and was built up on trading by the Red Sea Coast.
It was originally an Arab styled country, but it later adopted elements from both Egyptian and Greek culture. During it’s first century, it was ruled by exceptionally rich kings, and due to this, Ethiopia was very strong and rich as well.
A thousand years later, Africa began slowly developing more tribal nations, but despite this, Africa was still a particularity decentralized continent. However, as time passed, the Europeans began colonizing the south coastal parts of Africa, taking advantage of the rich resources and trades going on there, also using it to promote the slave trade.